Technology of the Disks
The CLAM disks are designed to have water drawn through the disk first, preventing contamination of tubing and loss of analytes on pump, tubing or vessel walls.
SPE (Solid Phase Extraction) Time Integrative Extractions Explained
The CLAM uses a revolutionary fully submersed field extractive water sampling event to sequester pollutants by using interchangeable solid phase extraction disk-shaped cartridges. There was an industry need to “rejuvenate” water sampling equipment and the CLAM accomplishes this by its unique in-situ SPE extraction, which is a vast improvement over traditional sampling methods.
The CLAM’s active water sampling technology not only allows an integrative SPE extraction event of up to 36 hours, but also a field extracted volume of up to 100 liters can be obtained. This enables water testing labs to measure quantitative ultra-low level data, replacing the traditional “snapshot in time” one liter of data.
A small dry SPE cartridge is all that is sent to the water testing laboratory for elution and analysis providing ultra-low detection. Submerged in-situ field extraction simply leaves the water behind, saving on shipping costs. After extracting 100 liters of water, the SPE cartridge weighs less than one ounce; in comparison, 100 liters of water could weigh more than 300 pounds including bottles, ice and shipping coolers.
Solid Phase Extraction Disk Chaining (SPE cartridge chaining)
The ability to swap or snap on SPE cartridges (disks) easily is a great advantage, but more important is the versatility to stage or snap different types of SPE cartridges together.
The CLAM allows you to obtain a simple whole water sample using a single SPE media cartridge, a total and dissolved sample by using a two stage glass pre-filter and SPE media cartridge, or a multimedia sample by assembling one, two or three stage SPE media cartridge.
Using a simple glass pre-filter disk in front to remove pelagic sediments, and a second SPE media cartridge (disk) that sequesters the dissolved pollutants, allows capture of both factions for solid phase extraction and analysis. Whole water may be obtained through a single SPE cartridge, and different SPE media types may be chained together for challenging water sampling events.
The SPE cartridges can be easily snapped on and off without worry about system contamination, allowing for long-term active water sampling events where deployed SPE cartridges are collected and exchanged daily. This system provides the water testing laboratory unique time integrative samples not obtained by existing systems.
Types of Disks
SPE Cartridge – HLB Media DiskProduct #: A50-HLB-SPE Heavy
This media is best suited for semi-volatile organic analysis, EPA Method 1694 (pharmaceuticals and personal care products), emerging contaminants in wastewater and drinking water. It will retain a wide variety of non-polar and polar compounds such as: EPA 525 SOC’s, pesticides, pyrethroids, herbicides, PBDE’s, analgesics and stimulants such as caffeine. They are self-wetting and will not lose functionality. The Oasis HLB media is a hydrophilic-lipophilic balanced, water-wettable polymer. It provides superior reverse phase capacity with a polar hook for enhanced retention of polar analytes. The properties of this SPE cartridge will allow it to go dry for periods of time in the field, without affecting the analyte retention.
SPE Cartridge – SPE (C18) Media DiskProduct #: A50-C-18-SPE High Capacity
This media is the most prevalent and well established for non-polar compounds, and water analysis laboratories have standardized around its use. Many EPA methods have incorporated its use, for pesticides, PAH’s, semi-volatiles, PCB’s, dioxins, furans, PBDE’s and other HRMS methods such as EPA 1668 and 1614. EPA 1664 gravimetric oil & grease may even be conducted using this media disk.
Pre-Filtration DiskProduct #: A50-GF Pre-filter
The glass fiber pre-filtration disk allows for toxological studies for total and dissolved trace organics. It can be used in a two-stage filter assembly, where the glass fiber filter removes the sediment and allows the water soluble organics to be retained on the bottom HLB or SPE type filter. It can be used for gravimetric TSS, if the filter is oven-dried and weighed before and after deployment.
CLAM SPE Extraction Cartridge (Disk) Unique Advantages
- The solid phase extraction media is encased in a glass matrix and locked in place removing the realignment stigma
- Lofted pre-filtration of the media allows large water sample volumes to be extracted
- The field housing that supports the pre-formed media disks contains flow engineering that diverts the influent water to a horizontal 360 degree flow pattern
- The SPE cartridge encapsulating the media disk serves as sturdy shipping container which can be sealed with Luer-Lok plugs
- The CLAM system is a submersible self-contained extraction manifold performing EPA method 3535 without the use of glassware and other cumbersome water sampling equipment and power sources
- The testing water passes through the disk first, preventing cross-contamination and analyte losses on surface walls
- Provides a time integrative quantitative extraction active water sampling event of up to 36 hours
- The water sampling can represent up to 100 liters allowing adequate volume for ultra low detection or adequate volume for multiple water testing methods and analysis